Cat. No.
Illustration Description Find Spot Current Location Material

Miniature votive throne flanked by sphinxes

Limassol Museum

Cypro-Archaic I/II



This small limestone statuette dates to the late Cypro-Archaic period based on its design (Markoe 2000: 123) . Compare to the full size throne of Astarte at Eshmun in Sidon. Often associated with Astarte, they were offered empty as a throne for the goddess. This legitimised the Phoenician colonies by way of association with home ports, particularly Sidon (Aubet 1997: 130) (NB: the original heads are missing). Found during field walk for this project.
Defensive wall of acropolis Limassol Museum Limestone

Oversized limestone bowl


Cypro-Archaic II  

AO 22897


This oversized vessel is carved out of one solid piece of limestone and is now in the Louvre. Two elaborate handles are in the form of inverted U shapes, with each end terminating in an inverted tree of life. These are designed in a very formalised style, with twin volutes, central triangle and large fan shaped palmettes typical of the architectural capitals. The inverted flower is often found at the interfaces between the handles and the body of ceramic and metal vessels from this period. The inscription on the handle is still partially legible, and reads a-na, possible related to the goddess Anat. This combination of signs is found on other vessels from the site (CAM12) and seems to have been significant (Hermary 1981: 83; Hermary and Masson 1990: 214; Petit 1999: 112) . Acquired by Louvre 1865.
Top of acropolis Louvre Limestone

Two bronze mirrors with voluted decoration on handle

These objects were found in tomb 84 of the English excavations described by Murray, Smith and Walters in Excavations in Cyprus (Murray et al. 1900: pg 102 fig. 40) . The mirrors have voluted handles similar to the proto-Aeolic capital designs produced during the Late Archaic and Classical periods across the region. The use of plant forms for handles stems back to the Egyptian Bronze Age where papyrus forms were used for mirror handles. These volutes are circular spirals and are not in the style of the elongated elliptical tree of life volutes from the versions with central triangles.
Tomb 84 unknown Bronze

Miniature amphoroid krater with lotus flower

British Museum   

Cypro-Archaic I/II                                
White painted ware

(Gjerstad 1948: fig. L. no.103b)

(Murray et al. 1900: 104)

This vase is the best complete example from Amathus of the white painted geometric-influenced style of Cypro-Archaic ceramic designs. It is heavily influenced by the geometric style as well as lotus form motifs from the Levant and Egypt, and hybridises both forms. The central panel contains a chequered diamond shape related to the triangle of the goddess.
unknown British Museum WP 

Amphora with prothesis scene       

British Museum


Cypro Archaic II

Bichrome V

(Murray et al. 1900: 105)

(Cook 1979: 28)

This is a Bichrome V painted amphora of height 0.241m is now held in the British museum. It is decorated with large lotus flowers around the base and with a symposium scene where large trees provide shade for the reclining subjects who are being served liquid in drinking vessels.  As this vessel was found in tomb 129 it seems that this may be a ‘prothesis’ scene meant to show the deceased enjoying the afterlife. This is quite an elaborate scene to be shown on what is essentially a simple white painted amphora; the decoration is complex but naive. According to Burkert (1992: 19) this scene was originally a typically oriental composition, while Reyes (1994: 111) notes that the Amathusian artistic technique used to decorate it was influenced by the Attic black figure style (Reyes 1994: plate 32) . The reverse is adorned with a Hathor head, indicative of the increased contact with Egypt at that time. This agrees with its late sixth century B.C. designation.
T129 British Museum Bichrome V

Hathor head bichrome amphoroid crater with rosettes and lotus motif

CAII British Museum


(Murray et al. 1900: 105)

This is a highly ornate bichrome amphoroid crater now in the collection of the British Museum. The painted design includes an elaborate tree of life with voluted offshoots, a Hathor head, rosettes and a chain of lotus flowers. The vessel does not include decorative aspects related to the early Archaic or Geometric periods such as the triangles and diamond chequered effect panels. In several respects this vessel resembles the bichrome krater CA33, such as with respect to the rosettes and the lack of older motifs, and the significance of this issue should be examined. Less rural more cosmopolitan.
unknown British Museum Bichrome

Hathor capital painted vessel with lotus flowers


Cypro-Archaic II 600-480 B.C. Louvre

Bichrome V/Amathus black figure

(Hermary et al. 1992: 92)
(Aupert 1996: 38)

This fragment is of a style indicative of the influence of the Attic black figure ware style on Amathusian artwork of the late Cypro-Archaic. The inclusion of the Hathor capital also suggests a date of the mid to late sixth century when Egyptian influence on Cyprus was most direct and significant.
unknown Louvre Bichrome V

Hathor head capital

Limassol Museum

Cypro Archaic II


(Hermary 2000: Pl83, Pl84, cat. 969 : 144-148)

BCH 108 pg 970 fig. 3.4

(Aupert 1996: 187)

The capitals include many traditional Egyptian royal motifs such as the uraeus set into the false door motif. Above is a composition including a lotus flower, snakes, a winged sun disk, and rosette flowers traditionally associated with royalty or nobility. The sides of the capital have a volute spiral arrangement. Overall the whole capital resembles Egyptian New Kingdom precursors, but they also resemble Hathor headed sistrums and the design may have been based on one of these more portable items rather than an actual Egyptian Hathor capital.  The lower tresses would have been curled up as CAM9, in a form that clearly demonstrates the association between capital volutes and the goddess. This capital was found reused as spolia in the foundations of one of the buildings leading up to the sanctuary near the palace.
Palace on acropolis Limassol Museum Limestone

Hathor Capital Limestone

Limassol Museum

Cypro Archaic II   

(Hermary 2000: Pl. 87, cat. 972)

This capital has many features in common with CAM8 but is simpler and more heavily damaged. It has a uraeus in a false door surmounted by a winged sun disk flanked by two snakes. The false door is flanked by a pair of voluted spirals, and the tresses of the goddess are curled up in a volute style. The whole assembly sits on a large lotus flower decorated block with the top curved down on either side of the bust. Again this piece is reminiscent of a sistrum rather than a real Egyptian architectural capital. It is unclear as to how these were actually used, and whether they may have been votive sculptures, or mounted on a pole as decorative features rather than structural elements, or whether they were used as steles at ground level rather than elevated in the buildings.   This capital was found reused as spolia in the foundations of the Byzantine church on the summit of the acropolis.
Reused in Byzantine church on acropolis Limassol Museum Limestone

Elaborate polychrome sarcophagus from Cesnola collection     

Metropolitan Museum

Late Cypro-Archaic II

(Hermary 1981: pg74 Pl 15-18, cat. 80) (Aupert 1996: 47)
(Hendrix 2001)

This is a highly decorated and colourfully painted limestone sarcophagus in the form of a Greek or Etruscan temple of the period, with an apexed roof. It is 1.575m x 2.366m x 0.978m in size and was taken to New York in 1872 or 1873 by Luigi Palma de Cesnola.  Early Cypro-Classical period c.475 B.C., designed in the form of the roof of a Greek, Lycian or Etruscan temple of the era (Hendrix 2001: 44). Compare to Hiram Sarcophagus band of lotus.

The corners of the sarcophagus are in the form of four broad square legs or piers and are adorned with repeated tree of life motifs. These trees are effectively towers of flowers and the individual parts alternate between the formal double volutes with central triangle as seen on Iron Age Levantine capitals and the more ornate wide spread flower type more typically seen on the metal plates, or ceramic vessels. Compare to CAM5, prothesis scenes as shown on the Ahiram sarcophagus, or more common hunting scenes, and Cesnola suggested this scene may have had links to Persian satrapy where wall relief carvings of scenes such as this were common. Both of the more typical prothesis and hunting scenes appear on an almost contemporary sarcophagus from Golgoi that is also in the Cesnola collection at the Metropolitan Museum (74.51.2451).
unknown New York Met Painted limestone

Silver plate with Egyptianizing themes          

British Museum


Cypro-Archaic I

ANE 123054

(Cook 1979: 27; Laffineur 1986: 179)
(Myres 1933; Aupert 1996: 33)
(Markoe 1985: 172, fig. 248/249 cat. CY4)

This fine but fragmentary small silver plate of diameter 18.7 cm shows a scene of a town under attack around the outer ring, and perhaps reflects the Assyrian campaigns on the mainland at the time. The central tree of life on the middle band is positioned directly below the citadel shown on the outer band. This bowl was probably manufactured in Amathus.
unknown British Museum Silver

Large fragment of amphoroid crater with bull and tree of life scene

Limassol Museum

Early Cypro-Archaic I.


White painted/pseudo-bichrome ware

(Hermary and Fourrier 2006: fig. 325, Planche 52)

BCH 112, pg 862 report of 1987 work

This large piece of an amphoroid crater was reassembled from fragments excavated on the acropolis, and is known as the ‘vase aux taureaux’. It was found in pieces in the grotto cave of the sanctuary area of the temple complex. Masson and Hermary have dated it to 8th century B.C., and as it is also designated Cypro-Archaic I it was deposited near the start (750-700 B.C.) of the time that this cave was in use (750-480 B.C) (Hermary and Masson 1982: 115) . The material is referred to as ‘pseudo-bichrome’ ware, as the light terracotta ceramic was painted in two different paints of very similar colour. The shoulders of the vase included pairs of bulls with horns lowered, on one side facing a tree of life and on the other an inscription, the meaning of which is unclear. The tree of life is drawn in a way that suggests the artist was not used to drawing the symbol, yet it has elements that are clearly similar to the Amathusian capitals and the older voluted Levantine capitals with the central triangles. Echoes Late Mycenaean and Geometric themes rather than Iron Age Levantine styles.
unknown Limassol Museum WP/Pseudo-

Upper part of a limestone votive stele showing woman in window


Cypro-Archaic I/II

(Murray et al. 1900: 93)

(Hermary 1981: 73, Plate 14(79))

This fragment of a limestone statue includes a decorative voluted floral motif that may be related to the goddess. The statue is damaged, but may have been a limestone votive statue used as a stele and representing a naos or shrine with statue. This was found during the English excavations at the end of the 19th century in tomb 56.

T56 unknown Limestone

Engraved bronze mirror with tree motif

(Murray et al. 1900: 103, fig. 149)

This is an engraved bronze mirror with a tree motif. The style of the tree is as a palm with fringed leaves. This may indicate northern Levantine design influence. It has been noted in studies of ivories that northern Levantine motifs more commonly included fringed designs, referred to as being from the ‘flame and frond” school (Gunter 2009: 97)

unknown unknown Bronze

Fragments of bichrome vessel with tree of life from grotto

Cypro-Archaic I

(Hermary and Fourrier 2006: Planche 31, 124)            

These fragments are from a vessel closely related to CAM12. The tree of life on this vessel is drawn hand very similar to the larger amphoroid krater, although in this case a bird is shown rather than the bull motif. The fabric and decoration is in Cypro-Archaic I Bichrome  IV style.
unknown unknown Bichrome IV

Bronze shield boss with lions and trees of life             

British Museum

Early 5th century B.C.          


(Perrot and Chipiez 1885: 421)
(Myres 1933: 25-39)
(Cesnola 1877)

This bronze shield boss was found by Cesnola in the same tomb as the polychrome sarcophagus CAM10. It was also found with the silver plate CAM11. Well hybridised symbolic repertoire, derived from the east Mediterranean Bronze Age iconography, but with additional and new meanings more significant to the Archaic Period in which it was made.
unknown unknown Bronze 

Decorated panel from box-pyxis

Cypro-Geometric IB/II

Tomb 521 Amathus Anemos  

(Karageorghis et al. 1987: 65, plate L)

From box-pyxis decoration from Anemos necropolis
T521 unknown unknown

Decorated sherd with joined lotus and triangle design

Cypro-Archaic I 750-600 B.C.

BCH 1977, 101 pg 799

Fragment from excavations - lotus cross on white painted IV fragment

This is similar is artistic style to the complete amphoroid crater CA4 and the design on the fragment is a good example of the hybridised geometric/lotus flower with the petals angulated to fit in with the cross shape. The material is white painted ware. This was found on the terrace of the acropolis and is described in the BCH report from 1975. As well as the strongly stylised lotus flower, the design includes concentric circles, net effect chequered diamond design, parallel lines at right angles, and possibly fringed effect similar to wheat stalk.
unknown unknown WP IV

Decorated sherd from excavations hybrid lotus triangle

Cypro-Archaic I  750-600 B.C.

BCH 1976, 100 pg 918

White painted IV fragment

This piece is similar to fragment CAM18 and also similar to the complete amphoroid crater CAM4. As well as the stylised lotus flower it includes a net effect chequered diamond design, parallel lines at right angles, but is simpler that CAM18 as the flower is reflected across the cross shape so that the other side is the same although facing in the opposite direction.

unknown unknown WPIV

Gold embossed diadem strip

Limassol Museum

Cypro Archaic I/II


(Karageorghis et al. 1989: 23, Planche VII)     


This diadem strip is one of several found in and around Amathus and in tombs elsewhere on Cyprus. It follows a tradition dating back to the Bronze Age (Laffineur 1986: 23) . The diadems are not functional items and are only added to the burial assemblage as decorative attire for the deceased. They are placed across and around the forehead, and include floral motifs of palmettes, volutes and rosettes. This example includes an unusually shaped palmette. The bands are manufactured by imprinting (embossed - repoussage) the motif on the gold with a moulded stamp, and then repeating the design several times along the band. The association with these palmettes and the deceased supports interpretations that attribute a ritual significance to the symbols, and its association with life and rebirth.
T172 Limassol Museum Gold

Gold embossed diadem strip 2

Limassol Museum

Cypro Archaic I/II


(Karageorghis et al. 1989: 23, plate VIII)

The Necropolis of Amathonte VI pg 24 Plate VIII Gold

This is one of several funerary bands manufactured especially for placing around the forehead o f the deceased. This design is an unusually shaped palmette with the offshoots curled into volute shapes (Laffineur 1986) .
T354 Limassol Museum Gold

Bronze mirror with miniature voluted capital on stem

Limassol Museum?

Cypro-Archaic II


(Chavane 1990: 13, cat. 79)

This is a bronze mirror similar to those two catalogued here as CAM3. It was recovered during the French excavations from tomb 283. The handle is decorated with a miniature voluted capital where it joins with the mirror surface. The volute is well developed and formalised, and is further flanked by floral palmette style decoration. The spiral is rolled into an approximately circular shape, rather than an elongated trajectory seen in the Levantine influenced capitals with central triangle. The mirror style probably follows mirror design traditions rather than reflecting the development of the tree of life motif in other classes of material culture.
T283 Limassol Museum? Bronze

Embossed diadem silver strip with palmette symbol

Berlin Staatliche Museum

Cypro-Archaic II


(Laffineur 1986: 16, cat. 10)

Stamped silver diadem strip with elaborate alternating palmette and lotus bud chain motif. Obtained in late 19th century, probably from Amathus. The general impression given by the design is that it is well developed and formalised, suggesting a late Archaic or early Classical date.

Unknown Berlin 
Staatliche Museum

Black on Red ware amphora decorated with lotus cross

Limassol Museum Kantou

back right 1st room freestanding

750 B.C. 86 T9/14

Large Black on Red ware amphoroid krater on display in Limassol Museum marked as 750 B.C. From tombs around Amathus. Design includes hybrid geometric lotus cross as well as stalk of tree of life. Right hand side rear of main room.

T9/14 Limassol Museum BoR

Bichrome Amphora Lotus cross

Limassol Museum

back right first room freestanding

Cypro Archaic I/II

750-480 B.C.


Large amphoroid krater in bichrome IV or V style, including repeated hybridised lotus cross motif. Left of CA24. Complex handle design with central reinforcement strip.

unknown Limassol Museum Bichrome

Bichrome Amphora Lotus cross

Limassol Museum

back right first room freestanding

Cypro Archaic I/II

750-600 B.C.        


Large amphoroid krater in painted bichrome fabric with very large repeated hybridised lotus cross motif panels around widest part of body of vessel. Complex handle design. Left of above CA25 in museum. 

unknown Limassol Museum Bichrome

Small amphora bichrome lotus cross

Cypro Archaic I/II

Unknown cat. No.

Limassol Museum

In cabinet

Hybridised lotus form and central hatched triangle design on one side; simple naturalistic central tree on reverse. Small lozenge tree band design around neck.
unknown Limassol Museum Bichrome

Small amphora black on beige with lotus cross and rosettes

Limassol Museum

Cypro Archaic I/II

in cabinet             

Small amphora in beige fabric with black painted design of lotus cross design in cabinet at rear of main museum room. Hybridised lotus form and central hatched triangle design on one side, rosettes usually associated with rulers or deities around neck.

unknown Limassol Museum Beige

Small oinochoe with bird scene and tree of life lotus papyrus scene

CA1 750-600 B.C.

LM 863/36

This white painted vessel is decorated in a free field style with bird designs reminiscent of east Aegean geometric influences. It also includes a chain of lotus flowers of Levantine and Egyptianizing influence. It also includes a plant or foliage resembling a bush of papyrus plants, and the spout is decorated with a dot like an eye that was a popular motif during the Geometric Period.

unknown Limassol Museum WP

Proto Aeolic capital 1 left

Limassol Museum

6th century B.C.

This is a large proto-Aeolic capital from Amathus now in the Limassol Museum and listed as dating from the sixth century B.C. The triangle is surmounted by a mound shaped a little like a sunrise. This is relatively unusual, and again it is made up of three thin arcs. Above this foliage is sprouting. The central foliage flowers are simply carved in this case. Above the whole arrangement is a broad straight beam stretching the full width, and made up of three layers.

unknown Limassol Museum Limestone

Proto Aeolic capital 2 right

Limassol Museum

6th century B.C.

This capital is similar to capital CAM30 but has some significant differences. It has a pair of large volutes either side of a prominent central triangle. In the triangle is the symbol of the goddess, an upturned moon shaped crescent and the disc. The basic triangle with volutes is surmounted by an elaborate outgrown of foliage in the form of additional spread out mini volutes, and a chain of lotus flowers between.
unknown Limassol Museum Limestone

Hathor number 2  

Limassol Museum                                       

Museum back wall left  

Cypro-Archaic II

Bust of goddess with aegis pectoral. Uraeus in framed architectural facade above. Similar to design of sistrum. Possibly imitated design of these more portable items rather than architectural capitals. Evidence of increasing Egyptian influence of Cyprus during Cypro-Archaic II.
unknown Limassol Museum Limestone

Crater bichrome from Swedish Cyprus excavations W

(Gjerstad et al. 1935: IIa, Plate II)

Cypro Archaic II                       

Bichrome V ware

This Cypriot bichrome crater was one of the finest vessels recovered by the Swedish Cyprus expedition. It is of white fabric vividly coloured in black and orange paint in the bichrome style. The iconography is not particularly typical of Amathus and elements such as the rosettes suggest it is a Late Archaic period product. The tree of life at the centre of the decoration is not styled in a typical manner, and the whole arrangement gives the impression of being produced by a skilled novice or a foreigner unfamiliar with the fairly formal iconography of the region.
unknown unknown Bichrome V

Rhodian or SW Anatolian oinochoe fragments 1         

Rhodian ware

(Gjerstad 1977: PlVII, 74, 76, PlVI, cat. 100)

These are fragments of an oinochoe vase in typical Rhodian ‘wild goat’ style. The type is very distinctive and very typical and can be located with confidence to Rhodes. Cat CA35 is similar. The excavations in 1976 indicated that these were part of a group of votive offerings recovered from ‘terrace 0’.
unknown unknown Rhodian Ware

Rhodian or SW Anatolian oinochoe fragments 2

Rhodian ware

(Gjerstad 1977: PlVIII, 74, 77, cat. 101-109) Greek

These are fragments of an oinochoe vase in typical Rhodian ‘wild goat’ style. The type is very distinctive and very typical and can be located with confidence to Rhodes. Cat CA34 is similar.

unknown unknown Rhodian Ware

East Aegean Crater fragments         

Late Archaic

Technique ‘mixed’

(Gjerstad 1977: PlXI, 76, 77, 28, cat. 119-122)

These are fragments of a crater adorned with thickly painted black decoration including sphinxes and lotus flowers. A Greek ‘key’ border is also included. This style strongly resembles designs from the area around Miletus and Samos, as well as from Naukratis on the Delta in Egypt where traders from these areas were posted.

unknown unknown Mixed

Fragments of Attic black figure cup

(Gjerstad 1977: PLXXI, 83, 84, cat. 209-223)

These fragments show a small tree or flower of life with rounded volutes and a central fan of petals. The rest of the vase is decorated in the black figure style. Its Attic origins are a useful reminder of Amathusian contacts with the west Aegean as well as the east.

unknown unknown Black Figure

Amphora with mound and tree scene


(Fourrier 2009: 100)

Geometric depiction of mound with triplet of trees growing up. Format recalls Late Bronze Age precursors where triple trees were common (Evans 1928) and CPA44. Similar in styles to CAM4. Clear statement of mound and tree ideology.
unknown unknown unknown

Embossed metal label with opposing caprids around tree

(Gjerstad et al. 1935: IIa, Pl. XXIV)

Amathus T18, no. 42

Very stylised design intended to fit tag and to suit repoussé manufacturing techniques. Recalls designs from cylinder seals.
unknown unknown Metal